This is about 1960 when Turkish farmers started digging on a hill. They wanted to make a field and sow wheat there.
During the excavation, they were surprised to find stone tools at the bottom. The office of the Turkish Archaeological Department was located in the town of Sanliurfa, ten or twelve kilometers away from the mound. The farmers reached there for the tools. The impact experts working in the office were shocked when they saw the tools.
Experience has shown that they are quite old. The equipment was sent to Istanbul University. The purpose was to find out how old the instruments were. When the scientific report came, it was revealed that they were built at least 11,600 BC.
In 1963, experts from Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in the United States visited the mound and did some excavations. Some pillars were found below.
Most of them resembled the English word “T”. Because Turkey is a Muslim country, American experts consider it a tombstone. They stopped digging thinking that there was a village on the mound a few hundred years ago that was deserted. And that the stone tools would be the property of a resident who now got the farmers.
City of Prophet
Many years have passed. Klaus Schmidt, a prominent German archaeologist, arrived in 1994. He was drawn to the area’s impressive history. Rivers emerge. The earliest human civilizations were born in the valleys of these legendary rivers, collectively known as the “Tigris, Mesopotamia” and “Fertile Crescent”. Located on the border.
Orfa itself is a very historical place. Khalil-ur-Rehman Mosque is located in the city. There is a tradition among Jews, Christians, and Muslims that there is a pit in the same mosque in which Nimrod started a fire and threw Hazrat Ibrahim Khalilullah inside but by the command of God Almighty it became cold. That pit has now become a pond. Since Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) is the ancestor of Jews, Christians, and Muslims, that is why it is called the “City of Prophets”.
Naturally, Carles Schmidt also visited the mound where the stone tools were found 30 years ago. He was an experienced craftsman. (Nevali Cori). T-shaped pillars were excavated from there, but they were quite high.
It is believed that the ancients used to prepare them for performing social or religious rites. Of
Little did the German expert know at the time that his suspicions would lead to a change in the textbooks of history and archeology. Will be left
Formation of Agrarian Society
At that time, historians and archaeologists, after long research, had established the theory that the first human settlements were permanently settled in the Tigris and Euphrates valleys in 11000 BC. Gradually some people in every settlement became rich due to their hard work or good fortune. Thus classification was born in the society. Soon the evolving human society became divided between the ruling class and the people.
After that, religion was born to promote law and justice, and morality in society. Religion played an important role in shaping moral values and discipline in human society. So man built primitive temples so that they could worship their gods there. Then when human civilization developed, great temples were built.
According to the above theory, the people of 11,000 years ago did not have the resources, experience, tools, and expertise to build a regular temple. Milliman the above theory of efficacy.
The local Turks called this mound “Göbekli Tepe”. In Turkish, it means: “Mountain with a big belly.” T-shaped pillars came out. This excavation continued again. Due to the civil war in Syria, it came to a standstill. The following revelations came to light from this excavation.
Fifteen thousand years ago, the area of Orfa was quite lush. There were long and wide meadows in which deer, gazal, wild sheep, wolves, lions, pigs, different kinds of birds, and other animals were found in abundance.
Wild grain also grows. There was also an abundance of water. So nomadic people settled in this area temporary settlements. These people were hunters and hunter-gatherers. When the winter came, they would go to the coastal areas of the Mediterranean. When the summer came, they would return to the region of Orfa.
These people used tools made of stone, bone, or wood in their daily activities like a chisel, hammer, ax, sickle, etc. The tips of spears and arrows were also made of stone or bone. They learned to make ropes from different types of grass. They used tree trunks as wheels to move heavy objects. They used their tools to engrave pictures on rocks and walls.
Not a residential town
Experts cannot say for sure why this place was started by the ancient inhabitants of Orfa. However, some theories have been formulated. Built-in memory of the departed loved ones and elders. The third theory is that the place was the dewan or seat of the people of the area. Rituals were also performed.
However, it is certain that Gobekli Tapa was not a settlement. The reason is that not a single stove was found there. Nor were there any piles of rubbish and other signs which have been recovered from all the ancient settlements. So Gobekli Tapa was a place of pilgrimage, a place of worship, a room or a place of worship. The majority of experts believe that it was a place of worship.